A report from the National Science Foundation recently stated that a majority of young people believe astrology to be scientific, as reported by Science News, Mother Jones, UPI, and Slashdot, among others. Troubling if true, but I believe this to be a faulty interpretation of the NSF report. And I have human subjects data to support this argument.
What the NSF actually did was ask the question, “Is astrology scientific?” to a wide variety of Americans. The problem with human subjects data – as any psychologist like myself will tell you – is that simply asking someone a question rarely gives you the information that you think it does. When you ask someone to respond to a question, it must pass through a variety of mental filters, and these filters often cause people’s answers to differ from reality. Some of these processes are conscious and others are not. This is one of the reasons why personality tests are criticized (both fairly and unfairly) as valid ways to capture human personality – people are notoriously terrible at assessing themselves objectively.
Learning, and by extension knowledge, are no different. People don’t always know what they know. And this NSF report is a fantastic example of this in action. The goal of the NSF researchers was to assess, “Do US citizens believe astrology is scientific?” People were troubled that young people now apparently believe astrology is more scientific than in the past. But this interpretation unwisely assumes that people accurately interpret the word astrology. It assumes that they know what astrology is and recognize that they know it in order to respond authentically. Let me explain why this is an important distinction with an anecdote.
It wasn’t until around my sophomore year of college that I discovered the word “astrology” referred to horoscopes, star-reading, and other pseudo-scientific nonsense. I had heard of horoscopes before, sure, but not the term astrology. I had, as many Americans do, a very poor working vocabulary to describe scientific areas of study. Before that point, in my mind, astrology and astronomy were the same term.
I did not, however, think that horoscopes were scientific. I simply did not know that there was a word for people who “study” horoscopes. If you’d asked me if astrology was scientific before college, I would have said yes – because to me, astrology was the study of the stars and planets, their rotations, their composition, the organization of outer space, and so on. Of course, in reality, it isn’t. Astronomy is a science. Astrology is the art of unlicensed psychological therapy.
When I saw the NSF report, I was reminded of my own poor understanding of these terms. “Surely,” I said to myself, “it’s not that Americans believe astrology is scientific. Instead, they must be confusing astronomy with astrology, like I did those many years ago.” Fortunately, I had a very quick way to answer this question: Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk).
MTurk is a fantastic tool available to quickly collect human subjects data. It pulls from a massive group of people looking to complete small tasks for small amounts of money. So for 5 cents per survey, I collected 100 responses to a short survey from American MTurk Workers. It asked only 3 questions:
- Please define astrology in 25 words or less.
- Do you believe astrology to be scientific? (using the same scale as the NSF study)
- What is your highest level of education completed? (using the same scale as the NSF study)
After getting 100 responses (a $5 study!), I first sorted through the data to eliminate 1 bad case from someone who entered gibberish when responding to the first question. Then I tried to replicate the findings from the NSF study by looking at a bar chart of #2 for the remaining 99 people. It was very similar to what NSF reported, as shown below.
Across the sample, approximately 30% found astrology to be “pretty scientific” or “very scientific.” This is lower than the NSF report found (42% for “all Americans”), but this is probably due to the biases introduced by MTurk in comparison to a probability sample of US residents – MTurk users tend to be a little more educated and a bit older. Still a pretty high proportion though.
Next, I went through and coded the text responses to identify who correctly differentiated between astrology and astronomy. 24% of my sample (24 of 99 people) answered this question incorrectly. And given the biases of MTurk, I suspect this percentage is higher among Americans in general. Some sample incorrect responses:
- Astrology is the study of the stars and outer space.
- Astrology is the study of galaxies, stars and their movements.
- the study of how the stars and solar system works.
- Astrology is the scientific study of stars and other celestial bodies.
These are in stark contrast to the correct responses:
- Trying to determine fate or events from the position of the stars and planets
- Astrology is the prediction of the future. It is predicted through astrological signs which are influenced by the sun and moon.
- Astrology is the study of how the positions of the planets affect people born at certain times of the year.
- The study the heavens for finding answers to life questions
For those statistically inclined, a one-sample t-test confirms what I suspected: if people generally did not have trouble distinguishing between astrology and astronomy, we would not have seen such an extreme number of incorrect answers: t(98) = 17.032, p < .001. There is definitely some confusion between these terms.
Next, I created the bar graph above again, but split it by whether or not people got the answer correct.
Quite a big difference! Among those that correctly identified astrology as astrology, only 13.5% found it “pretty scientific” or “very scientific”. Only 1 person said it was “very scientific.” Among those that identified astrology as astronomy, the field was overwhelmingly seen as scientific, exactly as I expected. This is the true driver of the NSF report findings. Both an independent-samples t-test and a Mann Whitney U test (depending on what scale of measurement you think Likert-type scales are) agree that the differences in science perceptions between those responding about astronomy and those responding about astrology is significantly different (U = 119.00, p < .001; t(97) = 10.537, p < .001). Massive effect too (d = 2.48)! Thus I conclude that it is invalid to simply ask people about astrology and assume that they know what that term means.
Various media reports have noted that the NSF report discussed how 80-99% of Chinese respondents in a 2010 Chinese study reported skepticism of various aspects of astrology, interpreting this difference as evidence supporting the decline of US science education. Instead, I suspect that this difference only reveals that in Chinese, the words for astronomy and astrology are not very similar. 86.5% is right in the middle of the range of findings from the Chinese sample, although I expect a broader US sample than MTurk would probably be a little lower. But at the least, I feel comfortable concluding that we are safe from Chinese scientific dominance for at least another year.
So why might this effect have been worse for young people? My guess is that the long-term effect is exactly the opposite from what the NSF reports. I suspect that young people are in fact more skeptical of astrology than ever before – and I believe this skepticism is driven by reduced exposure in youth. Young people just aren’t as likely to hear the word astrology in connection to horoscopes anymore, and probably less likely to hear about horoscopes at all because virtually no one reads newspapers anymore (which I also suspect is where most people were historically first exposed to them; I remember learning of horoscopes for the first time in the Tennessean many years ago as a child in Nashville). As people age, they’re more likely to hear the term “astrology” and say, “Oh, astrology means horoscopes? That’s obviously fake! Nothing like astronomy!” Perhaps the demise of print journalism isn’t as bad as we thought!
If you’d like to take a look at my data from MTurk, it is available to download here. Overall, I think the lesson from this is quite clear: more NSF funding for social scientists to prevent these problems in the future!!
Update 2/18: Thanks to @paldhaus and @ChrisKrupiarz, I discovered a European Commission report corroborating my findings, available here (see p. 35-36). In the Commission survey of the EU, a “split ballot” approach was used, asking half of respondents about how scientific “horoscopes” are whereas the other half were asked about how scientific astrology was. 41% of those in the EU identified astrology as scientific, whereas only 13% identified horoscopes as scientific. Since this was a 2005 study, it it surprising NSF has not altered their methods since.