Grad School Series: Applying to Graduate School in Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Starting Sophomore Year: Should I get a Ph.D. or Master’s? | How to Get Research Experience
Starting Junior Year: Preparing for the GRE | Getting Recommendations
Starting Senior Year: Where to Apply | Traditional vs. Online Degrees | Personal Statements
Interviews/Visits: Preparing for Interviews | Going to Interviews
In Graduate School: What to Expect First Year
Rankings/Listings: PhD Program Rankings | Online Programs Listing
So you want to go to graduate school in industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology? Lots of decisions, not much direction. I bet I can help!
While my undergraduate students are lucky to be at a school with I/O psychologists, many students interested in I/O psychology aren’t at schools with people they can talk to. I/O psychology is still fairly uncommon in the grand scheme of psychologists; there are around 7,000 members of SIOP, the dominant professional organization of I/O, compared to the 150,000 in the American Psychological Association. As a result, many schools simply don’t have faculty with expertise in this area, leading many promising graduate students to apply elsewhere. That’s great from the perspective of I/O psychologists – lots of jobs – but not so great for grad-students-to-be or the field as a whole.
As a faculty member at ODU with a small army of undergraduate research assistants, I often find myself answering the same questions over and over again about graduate school. So why not share this advice with everyone?
Ph.D. programs generally require 3 or 4 recommendation letters, while Master’s programs require the same number of either recommendation letters or references. That is because different programs want different information from recommendations.
A reference is simply someone that the selection committee (the group that will be deciding whether or not to accept you) can e-mail or call to ask questions about you. This requires much less work on the part of the person providing the recommendation. References are usually contacted by the selection committee a month or two after you turn in your application, if at all.
A recommendation letter is a letter in which someone with more experience than you explains why you would be a good graduate student, which becomes part of your graduate school application. That means the most valuable letters contain several pieces of information about you:
- Your overall “readiness” for graduate-level work
- Your reliability in meeting your commitments
- Your personality
- Your intelligence/ability level
- Your creativity/innovation
- Any major accomplishments that are relevant to graduate work
That means for a letter writer to write a good recommendation letter, they need to 1) know you and/or your work pretty well and 2) have sufficient experience to know what’s important to be a successful graduate student.
Considering this, some letter writers are better than others. Here is a rough list, from best to worst:
- A faculty member in whose lab you worked and whose class you took, with whom you worked closely
- A faculty member in whose lab you worked, with whom you worked closely
- A graduate student in a lab where you worked, with whom you worked closely
- A faculty member in whose lab you worked and whose class you took
- A faculty member in whose lab you worked
- A graduate student in whose lab you worked
- A faculty member whose class you took and did well
You probably noticed that everyone on this list is an academic. Remember that references for graduate school are professional references, not personal ones. Your boss at MegaMart doesn’t know what work as a graduate student looks like, so don’t ask her to be your reference.
Note that a faculty member whose class you took and did well in is at the bottom of the list. That’s because this person is unlikely to have many specific comments about your capabilities in regards to graduate school. Asking three faculty whose class you took is an extremely poor strategy for collecting recommendation letters. One such person is fine as a last resort, but you should aim higher in the list, especially if you want a good shot at a Ph.D. program.
Just because some people are higher in the list doesn’t mean you should ask them at the exclusion of others. For example, if you have worked in a research lab closely with three graduate students, you would not want to ask all of them. In your final list of references, try to have balance: at least one faculty member, at least one person that has worked with you closely, and at least one person that has taught you. Hopefully that means at least two faculty. Many ambitious undergraduates work in two labs in order to have several folks to choose from (plus this looks impressive anyway!).
If you’re pursuing a Master’s degree, then this order is much less important. Faculty with whom you’ve taken classes and made an impression are probably enough, but higher in the list is still certainly better. If you are applying to a professional Master’s program, you should also add a professional reference if you have one – someone in the human resources/OB world who can comment on your potential as a practitioner.
You should start planning out who will be your letter writers at the beginning of your Junior year. As soon as you’ve identified someone you definitely want to be a reference and they know you pretty well, ask them if they’re willing to write a letter for you, up to a year in advance. This will call their attention to watching your performance, which will help them write a better letter. If you only need references, you can contact these folks a month or two before you submit applications. You need to work in a lab and you need the faculty with whom you are working to know who you are.
You should give letter writers at least 30 days (a month) to write letters for you. That means 30 days out, you need to know where you are applying and deliver a recommendation packet to each of your letter writers.
The recommendation packet (which might be paper or electronic) should contain:
- A list of all schools you are applying to. Include which program you are applying to, e.g. Master’s in I/O, Ph.D. in Human Resources.
- Deadlines for each school. To be safe, set deadlines for your letter writers a week before the “real” deadline.
- Specific instructions for each school. Some schools want letter writers to also fill out online forms, some want letters e-mailed, and others want letters snail mailed in an envelope signed across the back flap. Do this grunt work for your writers – figure out what each school needs, and include this information in your packet.
- Your unofficial transcript. This will help your letter writer describe your academic qualifications outside of his or her classroom and lab.
- Your resume/curriculum vita. You need to prepare this for some of your applications.
- The best on-topic paper you’ve ever written. Find a paper you wrote for your lab, for your thesis, or for your I/O or HR class.
- Any needed letter hardware. If some of your applications require paper letters, include a pre-addressed stamped envelope. Not only is it more polite to pay for your letter writer’s stamp, but it also ensures that your letter writer will send it to the right address.
The more organized you are, the less you are relying on your letter writers to remember things on your behalf, and the less likely something will go wrong. Use spreadsheets.
Finally, don’t ask your letter writers for a copy of the letter they write. Recommendation letters are generally considered confidential, between the letter writer and the search committee only. Even if I like a student, I generally won’t write a letter if they want to see it first.